Week in BioE (July 25, 2018)

Advances in Stem Cell Research

Stem cell therapy has been used to treat a variety of conditions.

A paper published this month in Scientific Reports announced a new a strategy for the treatment of segmental bone defects. The new technique, called Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering (or SATE) comes from a team of researchers with the New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF). A press release from the NYSCF and an accompanying short video (below) describe the breakthrough technique, which will “[allow] researchers to combine segments of bone engineered from stem cells to create large scale, personalized grafts that will enhance treatment for those suffering from bone disease or injury through regenerative medicine.”

Segmental Additive Tissue Engineering from NYSCF on Vimeo.

Ralph Lauren Senior Investigator Guiseppe Maria de Peppo, PhD, and first author Martina Sladkova, PhD, express their hope that this new procedure will help address some of the limitations of bone grafts, such as immune system rejection, the need for growing bones in pediatric patients, and the difficulty of creating larger bone grafts made from patient stem cells.

Elsewhere in stem cell research, the Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices has given the company Viscofan BioEngineering approval to start clinical trials for stem cell therapy to treat heart failure. Already a world leader in the market for medical collagen, Viscofan is now turning its research toward using collagen (a protein found in the connective tissue of mammals) to strengthen the weakened heart muscle of those with ischemic cardiomyopathy, a type of heart failure and the leading cause of death in the world. This new “Cardiomesh” project includes collaborators from industry, academia, and hospitals to create this elastic and biodegradable product. Viscofan expects to start clinical trials after the summer of this year, and the full details can be found in Viscofan’s press release.

Federal Grant Supports International Bioengineering Research

The Canadian government awarded a $1.65 million federal grant to two top Canadian universities to develop a center based on engineering RNA. The University of Lethbridge and the Université de Sherbrooke will team up with international collaborators from the United States, Germany, France, Australia, and more and to found and develop the Ribonucleic Acid Bioengineering and Innovation Network Collaborative Research and Training Experience over the next six years. This comes as part of the Canadian government’s CREATE initiative, which awards grants to research teams across the country to support research, innovation, and jobs-creation in the sciences. These two universities are national leaders in the field of RNA research, a diverse and interdisciplinary field. This new network will focus on training of both young academics transitioning to industry and entrepreneurs looking to develop new technologies. This project is led by Hans-Joachim Wieden, PhD, Chemistry and Biochemistry faculty at the University of Lethbridge and an Alberta Innovates Strategic Chair in RNA Bioengineering.

Lehigh University Awarded Grant in Ebola Research

Close to Philadelphia in Allentown, PA, researchers at Lehigh University received a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant to support their research into one of the deadliest of modern diseases, the Ebola virus, which is highly infectious and currently without vaccine or cure. Entitled “TIM Protein-Mediated Ebola Virus-Host Cell Adhesion: Experiments and Models,” the goal of this research is to create a “predictive and quantitative model of the Ebola Virus (EBOV)-host cell interactions at the molecular through single-virus levels.” Building on past research, the investigators ultimately hope to provide the first quantitative study of this type of cell interaction. By studying how EBOV enters the body through healthy cells, the aim is to understand how it works and ultimately develop a technique to stop its entry. The lead investigator, Anand Jagota, PhD, is the current Professor and Founding Chair of Lehigh University’s Bioengineering program.

New Research in Brain Tumor Removal

The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) awarded a grant to Fake (Frank) Lu, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton in support of his research to design more accurate techniques for the removal of brain tumors. His technique, called Stimulated Raman Scattering or SRS, is a mode of identifying molecules during surgery which can be used to create a highly detailed and accurate image. Dr. Lu’s SRS techniques will improve both the speed of the surgery and the accuracy of the tissue removal. With this grant support, Dr. Lu’s team will collaborate with local universities and hospitals on collecting more data as their next step before making the technology more widely available.

People and Places

Undergraduate students at our neighbor Drexel University received the Robert Noyce Scholarship, an NSF program that supports students seeking their teacher certification in science and math at the middle school level. The co-investigators and undergraduates are from a variety of disciplines and programs across the university, including co-investigator Donald L. McEachron, PhD, Teaching Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Health Systems. The students’ curriculum in the DragonsTeach Middle Years program will combine rigorous preparation for teaching STEM subjects and the foundational knowledge to work with under-served schools.

Another group of students, this time from California State University, Long Beach, used their victory in the university’s annual Innovation Challenge as an opportunity to launch a startup called Artemus Labs. Their first product, “Python,” uses body heat other physical sensations to regulate a prosthetic liner, useful in making sure prosthetic limbs are comfortable for the wearer. The students explained that their idea was driven by need, as few prosthetic manufacturers prioritize such factors as temperature or sweat regulation in the creation of their products.

Finally, the University of Southern California Viterbi School of Engineering has a new Chair of Biomedical Engineering: Professor K. Kirk Shung, PhD. Dr. Shung obtained his doctorate from the University of Washington and joined USC in 2002. With a background in electrical engineering, Dr. Shung’s research focuses on high frequency ultrasonic imaging and transducer development, and has been supported by a NIH grant as well as won multiple awards from the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), among others.

Week in BioE (December 15, 2017)

A New Model of the Small Intestine

small intestine
Small intestinal mucosa infested with Giardia lamblia parasites

Diseases of the small intestine, including Crohn’s disease and microbial infections, impose a huge burden on health. However, finding treatments for these diseases is challenged by the lack of optimal models for studying  disease. Animal models are only so close to human disease states, and laboratory models using cell lines do not completely mimic the environment inside the gut.

However, these limitations might be overcome soon thanks to the research of scientists at Tufts University.  In an article recently published in PLOS ONE, a team led by David L. Kaplan, Ph.D., of the Tufts Department of Biomedical Engineering, describes how they used donor stem cells and a compartmentalized biomimetic scaffold to model and generate small intestine cells that could differentiate into the broad variety of cell types common to that organ.

The study team tested the response of its cell model to E. coli, a common pathogen. At the genetic level, the model matched the reaction of the human small intestine when exposed to this bacterium. The success of the model could translate into its use in the near future to better understand the digestive system’s response to infection, as well as to test individualized treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s.

Saving Battle-wounded Eyes

The increase in combat survival rates has led to a higher incidence of veterans with permanent vision loss due to catastrophic damage to the eye. Globe injuries will recover of some vision, if caught in time. However, combat care for eye injuries often occurs hundreds or thousands of miles away from emergency rooms with attending ophthalmologists. With this unavoidable delay in treatment, people with globe injuries suffer blindness and often enucleation.

However, battle medics might soon have something in their arsenals to prevent such blinding injuries immediately in the combat theater. As reported recently in Science Translational Medicine, engineers at the University of Southern California (USC) and ophthalmologists from USC’s Roski Eye Institute have collaborated in creating a new material for temporary sealing of globe injuries. The study authors, led by John J. Whalen, III, Ph.D., used a gel called poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), already under investigation for treating retinal injuries. PNIPAM is a thermoresponsive sealant, meaning it is a liquid at cooler temperature but an adhesive gel at warmer temperature. These interesting properties mean PNIPAM can be applied as a liquid and then solidifies quickly on the eye. The authors manipulated PNIPAM chemically to make it more stable at body temperature. As envisioned, the gel, when used with globe injuries, could be applied by medics and then removed with cold water just before the eye is treated.

The study team has tested the gel in rabbits, where it showed statistically significant improvement in wound sealing and no negative effects on the eyes or overall health of the rabbits. The authors believe the material will be ready for human testing in 2019.

Predicting Seizures in Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder characterized by seizure activity that can range in severity from mild to debilitating. Many patients with epilepsy experience adequate control of seizures with medications; however, about a third of epileptic patients have intractable cases requiring surgery or other invasive procedures.

In what could be a breakthrough in the treatment of refractive epilepsy, scientists from Australia in collaboration with IBM Research-Australia have used big data from epilepsy patients to develop a computer model that can predict when seizures will occur. So far, the technology predicts 69% of seizures in patients. While it’s still short of a range of accuracy making it feasible for use in patients outside of experimental settings, the acquisition of ever-increasing amounts of data will render the model more accurately.

The Art of Genetic Engineering

Among the techniques used in genetic engineering is protein folding, which is one of the naturally occurring processes that DNA undergoes as it takes on three dimensions. Among the major developments in genetic engineering was the discovery of the ability to fold DNA strands artificially, in a process called DNA origami.

Now, as suggested by the name “origami,” some people have begun using the process in quasi-artistic fashion. In an article recently published in Nature, bioengineers at CalTech led by Lulu Qian, Ph.D., assistant professor of bioengineering, showed they were able to produce a variety of shapes and designs using DNA origami, including a nanoscale replica of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.

DNA now also has another unique artistic application — tattoos, although people’s opinions of whether tattooing constitutes art might vary. Edith Mathiowitz, Ph.D., of Brown University’s Center for Biomedical Engineering, is among the patenters of Everence, a technology that takes DNA provided by a customer and incorporates it into tattoo ink. Potential tattooees can now have the DNA of loved ones incorporated into their bodies permanently, if they should so wish.

People and Places

The University of Washington has launched its new Institute for Nano-engineered Systems, cutting the ribbon on the building on December 4. The center will house facilities dedicated to scalable nanomanufacturing and integrated photonics, among others. Meanwhile, at the University of Chicago, Rama Ranganathan, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Institute for Molecular Engineering, will lead that college’s new Center for Physics of Evolving Systems. Congratulations!

Week in BioE (November 24, 2017)

Hear Ye, Hear Ye

auditory cortext
Electron microscope image of the auditory cortex

Last week, we reported on researchers at Purdue University studying how the brain processes visual data. A recent report from biomedical engineers at Washington University-St. Louis studies another intriguing aspect of brain function: how we detect and interpret sound. The popular perception is that that neurons in the brain’s auditory cortex first identify that a sound is present (introductory reaction) and then determine the sound content (secondary reaction). Dennis Barbour, MD, Ph.D., associate professor of biomedical engineering at WashU and lead author on this study, tested whether the accuracy of the information encoded during the first process was less accurate than that recorded during the second process. While animals were exposed to auditory stimuli, the activity of neurons in their auditory cortices was measured and recorded using event-related potentials and functional MRI.

Dr. Barbour refuted the popular assumption of less accuracy earlier in sound processing. The group’s data showed that neurons were equally accurate in communicating sound information regardless of whether it was an introductory or secondary reaction. Therefore, it is likely that these two reactions serve a different purpose than initially suspected. Whether this model of neuron reaction to stimuli pertains to the other sensory organs remains to be seen.

Stem Cells Regenerate Damaged Arteries

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one complication of diabetes, characterized by a narrowing of blood vessels in the peripheral circulation. PAD can lead to poor oxygenation of tissue in the limbs, and in the most severe cases, it can lead to limb amputation. Therefore, there is a great unmet clinical need to reverse the poor circulation caused in PAD. In a recent issue of Theranosticsmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used to regrow blood vessels damaged by PAD. Led by Wawrzyniec Lawrence Dobrucki, Ph.D., professor of bioengineering and of medicine and head of the Experimental Molecular Imaging Laboratory at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, this report showed the development of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) could be accelerated by injecting MSCs into mice following limb ischemia. The authors found that angiogenesis was 80% greater than the angiogenesis in untreated animals. These changes in the blood vessel network were also matched with functional improvement, as blood perfusion increased by 42% and muscle strength by 70% in animals treated with MSCs.

The study provides additional evidence for the multiple medical applications of stem cells. Dr. Dobrucki believes the technology tested in this study could eventually be applied not only to regenerate damaged vascular tissue but also to diagnose diseases like PAD.

Saliva Test for Lupus

Blood testing provides a simple and effective way to diagnose many diseases. But what can healthcare professionals do if obtaining a blood sample isn’t possible? Children and patients who fear needles pose the biggest problems here, but collecting blood can also be difficult for patients in remote areas. To both reduce the discomfort and increase patient accessibility to diagnostic tests, there is a great interest in replacing blood-based diagnostic tests with tests using other fluids like saliva and urine.  Using a grant from the National Institutes of Health,  Chandra Mohan, Ph.D., Hugh Roy and Lillie Cranz Cullen Endowed Professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Houston, intends to address this issue by developing a saliva-based test for lupus, an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately 1.5 million Americans. Based on the discovery that anti-double stranded DNA antibodies appear in the blood and saliva of lupus patients, Dr. Mohan will develop and then test the new diagnostic method to evaluate the potential of replacing blood-based detection with saliva samples.

Engineering Better Plastics

Along with concerns about climate change, environmental concerns regarding pollution have been an emphasis of scientists and activists for decades. Garbage poses a particular problem because most of the plastic in garbage is not biodegradable.

In response to this environmental concern, a team of engineering students at the University of Iowa have used genetic engineering to develop sensors for biodegradable plastics. Bacteria already produce a biodegradable plastic – 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) – that could be a replacement for the non-degradable plastics that are used in the market today. However, manufacturing 3HP is more expensive, and new production methods would be more efficient if there were a sensor available to determine 3HP amounts during the manufacturing process. The Iowa team engineered bacteria that emit light based on the 3HP present in the microenvironment. By monitoring the emitted light during the manufacture of 3HP, we could control and optimize the production of 3HP and eventually make it an affordable alternative to non-degradable plastics. The team presented its research last week at the Giant Jamboree sponsored by the International Genetically Engineered Machine Foundation in Boston.

People and Places

The University of California, Santa Barbara, opened its new bioengineering building recently. The building will house at least a dozen faculty and their research groups and both the Center for Bioengineering and the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies. At the University of Southern California, officials announced the creation of a new center: the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience, designed to take advantage of collaborative research teams to tackle major health problems, including cancer, infection and drug development. The center will be run by chemistry faculty member Valery Fokin and by Peter Kuhn, Ph.D., Professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering & Biomedical Engineering at USC. Finally, last week, Tulane University’s Department of Biomedical Engineering celebrated its 40th anniversary. Happy anniversary, Tulane!

Week in BioE (October 30, 2017)

Using Stem Cells to Repair Damaged Tissue

CCND2
Induced pluripotent stem cells

Repairing heart tissue after a heart attack is a major focus of tissue engineering. A key challenge here is keeping grafted cardiomyocytes in place within the tissue to promote repair. As we reported a couple of weeks ago, using tissue spheroids and nanowires is one approach to overcome this challenge. Another approach involves manipulating the cell cycle — the process by which normal cells reproduce, grow, and eventually die.

In the latest advance in cellular engineering for this purpose, Jianyi Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Alabama, Birmingham (UAB) and T. Michael and Gillian Goodrich Endowed Chair of Engineering Leadership, published an article in Circulation Research showing how to control key cell-cycle activators to improve the success rate of cardiomyocyte transplants. Dr. Zhang and his coauthors, using a mouse model of myocardial infarction, engineered the transplanted cells so that they expressed much higher levels of cyclin d2, a protein that plays a key role in cell division. Cardiac function improved significantly, and infarct size decreased in mice receiving these engineered the cells. The authors plan to test their discovery next in larger animal models.

Use of stem cells in tissue regeneration isn’t limited to the heart, of course. Stephanie Willerth, Ph.D., Canada Research Chair in Biomedical Engineering at the University of Victoria in Canada, is one of two recipients from that school of an Ignite Award from the British Columbia Innovation Council. Dr. Willerth will use her award to create “bioink” for three-dimensional printers. The bioink will convert skin cells into pluripotent stem cells using technology developed by Aspect Biosystems, a biotech company in Vancouver. Once induced, the pluripotent stem cells can be converted again into a number of different cell types. Dr. Willerth’s specific focus is building brain tissue with this technology.

Making Music

Prosthetic limbs have been a standard of care for amputees and people with underdeveloped arms or legs. Many current prostheses are designed to resemble actual limbs and use myoelectrical interfaces to re-create normal movements. Alternatively, other prostheses designed for specific purposes, such as the Flex-Foot Cheetah prosthetic foot for running, do not resemble the human limb but are optimized for a specific prosthetic function.

Now, a group of undergraduate bioengineering students at George Mason University (GMU) produced a prosthetic arm to play the violin. The students, who were instructed by Laurence Bray, Ph.D., associate chair of the Department of Bioengineering at GMU, were connected with a local fifth grader from nearby Alexandria, Va., named Isabella Nicola. Nicola was born without a left hand and only part of her left arm, and she had been learning violin using a prosthesis designed for her by her music teacher. The teacher, a GMU alumnus, reached out the department for help.

The design team used a three-dimensional printer to create a prosthetic arm for Isabella. The prosthesis is made of durable, lightweight plastic and includes a built-in bow, which Isabella can use to play her instrument. The prosthesis is hot pink — the color of Isabella’s choosing. She can now play the violin much more easily than before. Whether a symphony chair is in her future is up to her.

People and Places

The University of New Hampshire will use a five-year Center of Biomedical Research Excellence grant by the National Institutes of Health to create the Center of Integrated Biomedical and Bioengineering Research. The center will unite several colleges under the rubric of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. Similarly, the University of Iowa will use a $1.4 million grant from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust, an Iowa-based charity, to add a biomedical engineering laboratory for its College of Engineering.

Finally, congratulations to University of Minnesota Ph.D. BME student Lizzy Crist, who has been named the NCAA’s Woman of the Year, for her undergraduate record as a scholar-athlete (soccer) at Washington University in St. Louis.  She joins last year’s winner, MIT biological engineering student Margaret Guo, a swimmer who is now an M.D./Ph.D. student at Stanford.